IV. Das Judentum

Literatur: Diebner, Bernd J./ Hermann Schult: Thesen zu nach-exili­schen Entwürfen der frühen Geschichte Israels im Alten Testa­ment, in: DBAT 10 (1975) 41-47, wieder­ abge­druckt in DBAT 28 (1992/93) 41-46. – Lemche, Niels Peter: The Old Testament – A Hellenistic Book, in: SJOT 7/2 (1993) 163-193. – Neumann, Johannes: Der historische David. Legende und Wirklichkeit in der Geschichte Israels und Judas von der Frühzeit bis zur Dynastie Omri, Radebeul 1997. – ders.: Historischer Jesus und Altes Testament. Hellenistische Quelle der jüdischen Bibel, Radebeul 2000. – ders.: Latein in der Genesis, Das Alte Testament – Jüdische Lite­ra­tur aus der Zeit des Herodes und seiner Nachfolger?, in: ders.: War Jesus Statt­halter von Galiläa?, Radebeul 2009, S. 95-124. – Zuber, Beat: Die “Ge­schichts”-Traditionen der alttestament­lichen Kö­nigs­zeit – z. B. als literarischer Niederschlag einer his­to­ri­schen Aus­ein­andersetzung mit der Herodes-Dyna­stie zu le­sen?, in: Landgabe, FS Jan Heller, Prag 1995, 133-172.

Die traditionelle Erzählung über die Entstehung des alttestamentlichen Judentums lehnte sich eng an die biblische Erzählung vom Auszug

Garizim, antike Ruinen, Detail
Garizim, antike Ruinen, Detail

aus Ägypten, vom Großreich Davids, von den jüdischen Kleinstaaten, den Prophe­ten, vom babylonischen Exil und der Rückkehr unter Kyros an.

Da die Archäologie von diesen Erzählungen nur sehr wenig bestätigen konnte, wurden nach und nach Positionen geräumt und die Entstehung des Alten Testaments auf immer spätere Zeit verschoben.

An der vor­hellenistischen Entstehung der alttestamentlichen Schriften wollen die Vertreter der traditionellen Erzählung aber festhalten.

Ich vertrete folgende Meinung über die Entstehung des alttestament­lichen Judentums:

Das alttestamentliche Judentum entstand im 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr. zwischen der Regierungszeit des Fürsten Antipas und dem Abschluss der alttesta­ment­lichen Schrif­ten nach dem Ende des jüdischen Auf­stands 70 n. Chr.

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